Pushing old data off a disc

I often like to clean out deleted data from discs. Especially ones that are going to be recycled and used by other people. The problem I find is that secure wiping programs are just too slow. I don’t need that level of protection, I just want to quickly write over every block on the disc.

Recently I was trying to delete a large (1TB) drive. It had been formatted and I just wanted to fill up all the blocks on it with a huge file and then delete the file. This way I would be fairly confident that every block on the disc had been overwritten. The fastest way is to copy /dev/zero onto a file on disc. However I never feel confident that writing zeros actually overwrites anything. It would be very easy for the underlying device to simply mark the block as all zero rather than physically writing it. I believe the old ZIPDRIVE discs did something like this.

Instead of using /dev/zero the obvious solution is to use /dev/random or /dev/urandom. However these are far slower due to generating cryptographically secure random numbers. This is overkill for what I was trying to do. I just wanted to ensure that something was written. In the end I opted for making some big files withs /dev/random and then appending the file over and over until the disc was full.

It seemed unlikely that the device would be able to detect repeated blocks being written but it still niggled at me. Also it was not a particularly convenient method. I just wanted to run something and leave it until the disc was full. So I wrote a small tool called PushFill. This will keep writing data to a file until it runs out of space.

This uses RC4 to create a random 10Mbyte block of data which it writes to the file. It then writes the same 10Mbytes another 255 times, each time with every byte incremented by 1. After 256 writes (2.5G) it starts again with another 10Mbyte block from the RC4 stream. This way the RC4 generator is only used for a small percentage of the time and therefore does not slow down the writing. The step of incrementing each byte in the block by 1 is barely noticeable.

The advantage of this method is it is very fast, while still making every single block written different. Therefore the underlying system can not do any smart cheats such as noticing repeated blocks (think of how DropBox works, where each unique block is hashed and only physically stored once ever). Additionally the output of RC4 prevents any disc compression being able to use less physical blocks to store the data.

The syntax is simple:

PushFill <filename>

This will create or append to the specified filename. It will keep on writing until the disc is full, or program is aborted (ctrl-c).

Every two seconds the program will display how much it wrote in that time along with its rate. It will also display the total amount written so far and the average rate.

A sample output:

Block:    1.9 GB  Rate:  948.1 MBps  |  Total:    1.9 GB  AvgRate:  948.1 MBps
Block:    2.1 GB  Rate:    1.1 GBps  |  Total:    4.0 GB  AvgRate: 1017.2 MBps
Block:    2.3 GB  Rate:    1.1 GBps  |  Total:    6.3 GB  AvgRate:    1.0 GBps

 

Some systems will cache writes so the first few seconds will show a much higher rate than its actually writing to the disc.

Compiled binaries for the program are available here. The package contains binaries for Windows x64, MacOS x64, Linux x64, and Linux Arm (eg a Raspberry Pi).

Full source code available on GitHub here.

This is free and unencumbered software released into the public domain.

 

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